The process of using Video Modeling (VM) for teaching individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) involves a number of steps, each of which should be completed systematically and in a logical sequence.
1). Selecting target behavior
2). Getting the right equipment
3). Writing the script or developing a Task Analysis
4). Obtaining Baseline data
5). Making the instructional Video
6). Arranging the teaching environment
7). Presenting Video Models
8). Monitoring Progress
10). Fading Video models
The first step is selecting TARGET BEHAVIORS. Meaning, what behavior are we trying to increase or decrease. The target behavior should be observable and measurable.
For example, making a salad or brushing teeth.
Examples to AVOID: being angry, being cooperative.
Examples of target behaviors:
SELF CARE ; WASHING FACE, DRESSING, BRUSHING TEETH, ETC.
DAILY LIVING: MAKING A SANDWICH , USING THE MICROWAVE, SETTING TABLE, ETC.
COMMUNICATION: ANSWERING QUESTIONS, NAMING EMOTIONS , REQUESTING, ETC.
SOCIAL AND ACADEMIC: PLAYING WITH TOYS, TAKING TURNS, SPELLING, REDUCING TANTRUMS, ETC
VOCATIONAL: MAILING A LETTER, OPERATING THE VCR, EMPTYING TRASH, ETC
Video Modeling requires two pieces of equipment:
1). A video camera
2). A video player, monitor, or computer
It is encouraged to invest in a digital video camera, so that clips can be downloaded to a computer and easily edited.
Know what you will videotape – Writing a Script or developing a TASK ANALYSIS.
For instructional video, the script might consist of a written narrative that describes what the model will do and say.
The script for teaching the learner to perform a multi-step task might take the form of written task analysis, showing the sequence of steps the child will need to follow to successfully complete the task. Regardless of the complexity of the target task, it is advised to write a script all the time so that will guide the making of the video.
The script that specifies what the model should do during the filming maybe fairly simple or more elaborate.
A script for teaching social initiation for example, might simply show the model approaching a peer and asking “can I play with you?”
Other target behaviors, such as socio-dramatic play or conversational turn taking, would seem to require more elaborate scripts.
An example of a script for answering the phone: (seems too simple, yes, but for our ASD children it needs to be learned step by step)
The script begins with the phone ringing. After the second ring, the model-who happens to be a same aged peer-walks over to the telephone, picks it up and says “hello“
The caller, who can be heard but not seen, says ” Hi, can I talk to your mom?”
The peer model says ,” Yes, I will get her. Hang on.”
He than calls for his mother (“Mom there is a call for you”) and hands the phone to her.
If you plan to teach a skill that involves a sequence of several responses, the script is best written as a TASK ANALYSIS.
The process of breaking a task into its component steps. The number of steps obviously will vary depending on the child’s ability.
For example, writing a task Analysis for making a PB & J sandwich:
Take the peanut butter and jelly out from the refrigerator.
Retrieve a plate, and the butter knife. (this step might need to be broken further down, depending of the child’s ability)
Bring two slices of bread and put it on the plate. (again, this step might need to be further broken down)
Open the peanut butter jar and jelly jar.
Scoop out some peanut butter.
Spread it onto one slice of bread.
Scoop some jelly out of the jar.
Spread it onto the other slice of bread.
Put the two slices of bread together.
Close the jars .
Place them back to the refrigerator. Take your plate to the table, and eat your sandwich.
Lastly, intervention processing begins with the collection of baseline data. Baseline data could reveal that the child can already perform some of the steps in the task analysis.
In this case, the instructional video would not need to cover the entire script.
Or, baseline data may indicate that the child performs little of the target task. In this case the video should model all of the scripted behaviors.
When making the instructional video we need to consider which aspect of the script or task analysis is to be filmed.
Who will serve as a model in the video?
From which perspective will the video be filmed?
Should you include voice-over instruction?
Baseline data will pinpoint which behaviors in a script/task analysis are crucial to include in the instructional video.
(part three will cover how to select the models, selecting perspective, arranging teaching environment, presenting Video Modeling, monitoring progress, and troubleshooting problems)