So at last, the final stages of Video Modeling.
By now, we have our video, we know how to present it to the child, how to monitor their progress, and how to trouble shoot.
So now we will talk about Fading Video Modeling. Here, the instructor must work toward eliminating the need for continued video modeling to ensure that the child does not become prompt dependent.
Fading begins only after the child has mastered the target behavior. Once the target behavior has been acquired with video modeling, the aim is to maintain the behavior at mastery levels as the video models are gradually faded.
Procedures for fading video models:
Delayed start or premature stop. Gradually show less and less of the video by either ending it prematurely or starting it at a later point in the video (e.g., 30 seconds into the tape, 2 minutes into the tape). This means over several sessions the child will be watching less and less of the video.
Error correction. Instead of showing the video prior to the session, show the relevant parts of the video only if the child makes an error.
Scene Fading. Gradually delete certain scenes of the script or certain steps of the task analysis. This process might begin with the steps that the child mastered first.
Case study on using video modeling
Khadija is an 11 year old girl with autism. She has deficits in adaptive behavior and functions in the moderate to severe range of intellectual disability. She lives at home with her mother, father, older sister and younger brother. All of the children are expected to do some chores around the house. Her parents decided that Khadija’s chores would include setting the table for dinner.
Khadija’s Task Analysis for setting the table:
- Put a place-mat on the table in front of each of the five chairs.
- Put one dinner plate on top of each place mat.
- Put a napkin on the table to the right of each plate.
- Put one knife and one spoon on top of each napkin.
- Put one fork to the left of each plate.
- Put one water-glass near the top left corner of each plate.
- Put a bowl of dinner salad spoon in the center of the table.
- Put the wooden salad spoon and fork in the salad bowl.
- Put the large plate containing the main meal on the table next to the salad bowl.
- Call the family to dinner.
Parents collected baseline over three evening sessions.
Khadija was given five minutes to set the table. No other prompts or assistance were given other than her mother saying “Khadija please set the table.”
Khadija did not do any of the steps correctly. She always ended up with 0% correct. Khadija did not know how to set the table.
When they made the instructional video, each of the 10 steps of the task analysis was filmed in sequence, which showed the father doing step 1, then 2, and so on, until all the steps had been completed in order.
Verbal instructions were included in the videotape for each step of the task. For example, for step one as the father was putting the place-mats on the table the mother’s voice could be heard saying, “first put down the place-mats. Put one place-mat in front of each chair.”
Beginning the intervention:
Each evening, Khadija was brought to the dining room just before dinner time. A computer was near the table. Khadija’s mom turned on the computer, and pointed to it, saying “Khadija watch this.” She then watched the entire video. When the video ended the mother said,” Okay Khadija, I want you to set the table, just like in the video.”
After a few sessions, she was consistently doing 8 out of the ten steps correctly. However, she always made two mistakes. She would put the knife with the fork and the spoon, and she would put the water-glass on the wrong side of the plate. Although technically errors, her parents decided to tolerate those minor mistakes.
Benefits of Video Modeling (Bellini , 2007)
- Promotes acquisition of new skills
- Enhances performance of existing skills (increases mastery and fluency, and decreases anxiety)
- May be combined with other strategies (coaching, social problem solving, self monitoring, etc)
- Allows for the use of “hidden” supports and prompt fading.
- Increases self-confidence through the viewing of efficacious behavior.
- Promotes self-awareness.
“VIDEO MODELING IS WITHOUT A DOUBT THE MOST EFFECTIVE SOCIAL SKILLS INTERVENTION STRATEGY THAT I HAVE EVER USED WITH CHILDREN WITH ASD.” Scott Bellini, Ph.D., 2007
Some practical Considerations:
- Need parental consent for any child in the video (unless you are doing the video at home with your own family and friends)
- Seek technical assistance from CARD representative or Autism Resource Team
- Search for funding sources for equipment as needed
- Only equipment you need for this intervention is a computer or DVD player once the training videos are developed.
Video Futures Project at the University of Alaska, Anchorage
How Stuff Works
Personal Note – I spoke with many others who have been using this method teaching their students or children, and everyone said great things about Video Modeling. Please share your experiences with us if you have any!